01/2020 – 06/2020
Practical parametric training of critical emergency situation is a challenging task that yields several challenges. For example, reconstructing car accidents or other emergency situations in real world can be very time-consuming and cost intensive. Further, although test scenarios are required to be as realistic as possible, high safety standard must be guaranteed for the participants. Alternatively, immersive technologies like virtual CAVE solutions or projection based virtual rooms are cost expensive in purchasing and maintenance [1,2]. Contrary, virtual simulated scenarios during basic paramedic training are often of low-fidelity, reflecting a low level of realism and usually are delivered in a classroom environment. The creation of ideal environments for sophisticated paramedic training requires the use of immersive simulators with the capability to simulate more advanced interventions including; determining and communicating the priority of patients’ treatments based on the severity of the condition using the Manchester-Triage-System, Initiation of general security measures on (operation) site, Implementation of appropriate first aid medical measures, and create a comprehensive and meaningful documentation of actions . Recent advances in mixed reality (MR) hardware technology have brought this immersive medium to a broad acceptance with a major interest also coming from the area of healthcare . MR combines immersive computer-simulated environments with the real world by creating context aware holograms experienced with stereoscopic vision. In paramedic training this immersive technology could be used to provide high-fidelity simulations for training purposes to improve performance of paramedics and enforce collaborative processes . To our best of knowledge there is no work that identifies the potential and feasibility of MR technology for paramedic training and practice. In this thesis the applicability of MR as a training simulation method for paramedics will be evaluated by first conducting a requirements analysis to identify the potential of MR regarding working-routines of paramedics. Second, based on this analysis use cases will be designed and implemented. Third, a study including at least ten paramedics will be conducted evaluating the usability, user experience, task completion time, and task load of the implemented simulations. Finally, the results of the study will be benchmarked to results of previous studies that use comparable immersive technology in the domain of paramedic training (i.e. VR, AR) [4,5].
 Wilkerson, W., Avstreih, D., Gruppen, L., Beier, K. P., & Woolliscroft, J. (2008). Using immersive simulation for training first responders for mass casualty incidents. Academic emergency medicine, 15(11), 1152-1159
 Power, D., Henn, P., O’Driscoll, P., Power, T., McAdoo, J., Hynes, H., & Cusack, S. (2013). An evaluation of high-fidelity simulation training for paramedics in Ireland. International Paramedic Practice, 3(1), 11-18.
 Alinier, G. (2009). Skills benefits of advanced simulation training. Journal of Paramedic Practice, 1(9), 369-375.
 Mossel, A., Froeschl, M., Schoenauer, C., Peer, A., Goellner, J., & Kaufmann, H. (2017, March). VROnSite: Towards immersive training of first responder squad leaders in untethered virtual reality. In 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR) (pp. 357-358). IEEE.
 Vincent, Dale S., et al. “Teaching mass casualty triage skills using immersive three dimensional virtual reality.” Academic Emergency Medicine 15.11 (2008): 1160-1165.