07 / 2023 – 01 / 2024
Wearables are becoming increasingly popular, especially in the health and fitness domain. Most commonly, their sensors track and monitor data about or around the user. However, the data is often only available in a proprietary format and can only be accessed through the manufacturer’s application, making it difficult to use the data in other applications or to share the data with other users. Existing technologies like the Web of Things (WoT) and the Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) could potentially solve these issues. The WoT is a framework that aims to make devices and their data accessible through the web, and the SSN is an ontology that provides a standardized way to describe sensors and their data. This thesis investigates how to integrate wearables into the WoT and how to persist their data in a standardized format. For this purpose, a prototype is developed that uses the WoT Thing Description to describe the capabilities of wearables and extends it with SSN vocabulary to give semantic meaning to the data it provides.
 V. G. Motti, “Introduction to wearable computers”, in Wearable Interaction. Springer, 2020, pp. 1–39 (cited on p. 2).
 F. John Dian, R. Vahidnia, and A. Rahmati, “Wearables and the internet of things (iot), applications, opportunities, and challenges: A survey”, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 69 200–69 211, 2020 (cited on p. 2).
 J. Heikenfeld, A. Jajack, J. Rogers, P. Gutruf, L. Tian, T. Pan, R. Li, M. Khine, J. Kim, J. Wang, and J. Kim, “Wearable sensors: Modalities, challenges, and prospects”, Lab Chip, vol. 18, pp. 217–248, 2 2018 (cited on p. 2).
 E. Sazonov, Wearable Sensors: Fundamentals, implementation and applications. Academic Press, 2020 (cited on p. 2).
 S. M. Iqbal, I. Mahgoub, E. Du, M. A. Leavitt, and W. Asghar, “Advances in healthcare wearable devices”, NPJ Flexible Electronics, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 9, 2021 (cited on p. 2).
 M. Noura, M. Atiquzzaman, and M. Gaedke, “Interoperability in internet of things: Taxonomies and open challenges”, Mobile networks and applications, vol. 24, pp. 796–809, 2019 (cited on pp. 2, 4).
 A. Hazra, M. Adhikari, T. Amgoth, and S. N. Srirama, “A comprehensive survey on interoperability for iiot: Taxonomy, standards, and future directions”, ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1–35, 2021 (cited on pp. 2, 4).
 D. Guinard, V. Trifa, and E. Wilde, “A resource oriented architecture for the web of things”, in 2010 Internet of Things (IOT), IEEE, 2010, pp. 1–8 (cited on p. 2).
 D. Guinard and V. Trifa, “Towards the web of things: Web mashups for embedded devices”, in Workshop on Mashups, Enterprise Mashups and Lightweight Composition on the Web (MEM 2009), in proceedings of WWW (International World Wide Web Conferences), Madrid, Spain, vol. 15, 2009, p. 8 (cited on p. 2).
 A. Bhawiyuga, E. S. Pramukantoro, and A. P. Kirana, “A web of thing middleware for enabling standard web access over ble based healthcare wearable device”, in 2019 IEEE 1st Global Conference on Life Sciences and Technologies (LifeTech), IEEE, 2019, pp. 265–267 (cited on pp. 2, 6).
 S. Cirani and M. Picone, “Wearable computing for the internet of things”, IT Professional, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 35–41, 2015 (cited on pp. 2, 5).
 V. Charpenay, S. Käbisch, and H. Kosch, “Introducing thing descriptions and interactions: An ontology for the web of things.”, in SR+ SWIT@ ISWC, 2016, pp. 55–66 (cited on p. 2).
 M. Compton, P. Barnaghi, L. Bermudez, R. Garcia-Castro, O. Corcho, S. Cox, J. Graybeal, M. Hauswirth, C. Henson, A. Herzog, et al., “The ssn ontology of the w3c semantic sensor network incubator group”, Journal of Web Semantics, vol. 17, pp. 25–32, 2012 (cited on pp. 3, 5).
 S. Kaebisch and D. Anicic, “Thing description as enabler of semantic interoperability on the web of things”, in Proc. IoT Semantic Interoperability Workshop, 2016, pp. 1–3 (cited on pp. 3, 5).
 V. Charpenay and S. Käbisch, “On modeling the physical world as a collection of things: The w3c thing description ontology”, in The Semantic Web: 17th International Conference, ESWC 2020, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 31–June 4, 2020, Proceedings 17, Springer, 2020, pp. 599–615 (cited on pp. 3, 5, 9).
 A. V. Sambra, E. Mansour, S. Hawke, M. Zereba, N. Greco, A. Ghanem, D. Zagidulin, A. Aboulnaga, and T. Berners-Lee, “Solid: A platform for decentralized social applications based on linked data”, MIT CSAIL & Qatar Computing Research Institute, Tech. Rep., 2016 (cited on p. 3).
 M. Ushold and C. Menzel, “Semantic integration & interoperability using rdf and owl”, W3C, W3C Recommendation, Nov. 2005, https://www.w3.org/2001/sw/BestPractices/OEP/SemInt/ (cited on p. 4).
 D. Raggett, “The web of things: Challenges and opportunities”, IEEE Computer, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 26–32, 2015 (cited on p. 4).
 M. Ganzha, M. Paprzycki, W. Pawłowski, P. Szmeja, and K. Wasielewska, “Semantic interoperability in the internet of things: An overview from the inter-iot perspective”, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 81, pp. 111–124, 2017 (cited on p. 4).
 A. Venceslau, R. Andrade, V. Vidal, T. Nogueira, and V. Pequeno, “Iot semantic interoperability: A systematic mapping study”, in International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, SciTePress, vol. 1, 2019, pp. 535–544 (cited on p. 4).
 A. Sheth, C. Henson, and S. S. Sahoo, “Semantic sensor web”, IEEE Internet computing, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 78–83, 2008 (cited on p. 5).
 W. O. W. Group, “OWL 2 web ontology language document overview (second edition)”, W3C, W3C Recommendation, Dec. 2012, https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/REC-owl2-overview-20121211/ (cited on p. 5).
 S. Jabbar, F. Ullah, S. Khalid, M. Khan, and K. Han, “Semantic interoperability in heterogeneous iot infrastructure for healthcare”, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2017, 2017 (cited on p. 5).
 E. Mezghani, E. Exposito, K. Drira, M. Da Silveira, and C. Pruski, “A semantic big data platform for integrating heterogeneous wearable data in healthcare”, Journal of medical systems, vol. 39, pp. 1–8, 2015 (cited on p. 5).
 M. Freund, T. Wehr, and A. Harth, “Blast: Block applications for things”, in The Semantic Web: ESWC 2022 Satellite Events: Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, May 29–June 2, 2022, Proceedings, Springer, 2022, pp. 68–72 (cited on p. 6).  M. Freund, R. Dorsch, and A. Harth, “Applying the web of things abstraction to bluetooth low energy communication”, arXiv e-prints, arXiv–2211, 2022 (cited on p. 10).