10 / 2022 – 04 / 2023
Drowsiness while driving is a dangerous state that has an impact on road safety . Compared to driving without drowsiness, it can increase the risk of traffic accidents . In addition to human casualties, there is also a big economic damage .
Driving assistance systems can help to reduce the number of accidents. These systems consist of two components : First, the driver’s drowsiness is detected, which is possible through different detection systems such as eye tracking or head tilt observation . The second component consists of suitable in-car countermeasures. .
The ways to influence drowsiness can be divided into long-term measures (e.g. improving sleep quality through meditation ) and short-term measures (e.g. sleep  or caffeine consumption ). In the car itself, mainly short term measures come into consideration, such as listening to music , the emission of blue light stimuli  as well as temperature reduction through car ventilation . However, both the acoustic and visual stimuli have the disadvantage that in certain situations they can distract the driver .
This disadvantage is not known for thermal stimuli so far. Studies have shown that driver drowsiness can be reduced by lowering the car interior temperature . Cooling the upper body and especially the facial area leads to activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) of the human body [10, 13, 14]. Activation of the SNS, in turn, increases alertness , thereby decreasing drowsiness . However, this effect is only of short duration , and some studies suggest that if the stimulus application is repeated, drivers become accustomed to it and the awakening effect thereby decreases or even disappears [17, 18].
Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the influence of cold air applied by the car ventilation system on drowsiness during driving. Further, the effect of a more intense stimulus on its repeatability as well as the habituation of the subjects to the stimulus is investigated.
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